To learn more about the Certified Performance Technologist certification, click on the logo above.

Publications & presentations


Can We Really Halve Development Time? – Reaction to Scandura’s CommentaryTechnology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning, 2006 (3) (in press).

Building the Wrong Simulation:  Matching Instructional Intent in Teaching Problem Solving to Simulation Architecture.” Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning. 2006 (3) (in press).

“Designing Instructional Strategies: A Cognitive Perspective” Chapter in Pershing (ed.), Handbook of Human Performance Technology, 3d Edition. San Francisco: Jossey Bass (in press). With Kenneth Silber.

“Design Science Issues in Evaluation of Technology in Education and Training” in Spector, M. and Wiley, S. (eds.) Innovations to Instructional Technology: Essays in Honor of M. David Merrill. New York: Erlbaum, in press. With William Quinn.

“Can Instructional Design Deliver on the Promise of the Web?” in Anglin, G. (ed.) Issues in Instructional Technology. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited (in press). With Leslie Moller.


Do We Need Authoring Systems? A Commercial Perspective.” Technology, Instruction and Cognitive Learning, 2006 (2) 249-260.

Writing Training Materials That Work: How to Train Anyone to Do Anything. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Pfeiffer, 2003. With Kenneth Silber and Michael Stelnicki. [Winner, Award of Excellence, International Society for Performance Improvement, 2005].

“Leveraging Technology for High School Reform Initiatives.” PLATO White Paper #5. Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc. 2005.

“A Guide to School-Based Action Research in PLATO.” Technical Paper #16. Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc. 2005.

“Choosing the Right Formative Testing Option in PLATO” Technical Paper #13, ver. 2. Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc., revised August, 2004.

“An Overview of the Research Base of PLATO” Technical Paper #12, ver. 2. Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc. March, 2002. Revised August, 2004.

Learning, Teaching and Designing Problem Solving: An Assessment. 2003. With Andrew Gibbons.

“School Improvement and PLATO Learning, Inc.: A Guide to Incorporating PLATO Products and Professional Services into Your School Improvement Interventions.” Technical Paper #14. Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc. June, 2003.

Can Developmental Studies Learners Succeed in Distance Learning?” Presented to World Conference on Educational Media, Hypermedia, and Telecommunications, 2002. Proceedings Vol. 2002, Issue 1, pp. 519–520.

“Closing Performance Gaps in the Standards-Based Classroom: A New Role for Technology”  Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc. January, 2002. With David Braswell.

“Best Practices for Instructional Computing in Schools and the Workplace.” Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc. February, 2002.

“Teaching Beginning Reading with PLATO: An Overview of the New PLATO Beginning Reading Solution and How to Use It” PLATO Technical Paper #10. Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc. September 2001. With William Quinn.

“Teaching Early Mathematics with PLATO Software: An Overview of the New PLATO Elementary Mathematics Curricula and How to Use Them” Technical Paper #11. Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc. October, 2001. With William Quinn.

“Can Instructional Design Deliver on the Promise of the Web?” Quarterly Review of Distance Education 2(1) 2001, pp. 19–34.

“Web-Based Education: A Reality Check.” in Rossett, A. (ed.) (2002) The ASTD E-Learning Handbook: best practices, strategies, and case studies for an emerging field. New York: McGraw-Hill. Originally in Tech Trends, 44, 5, September, 2000, pp. 16–18. With Corrie Bergeron. 

“A Practical Process for Reviewing and Selecting Educational Software.” Technical Paper #8. Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc. September, 2000. With Muhammad I. Ahmed.

“Teaching Reading with PLATO: An Overview of the New PLATO Reading Solution and How to Use It.” Technical Paper #7, with Ellen McEvoy, Mike Graves, and Rosemarie Park. Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc July, 2000 (revised).

“Instructional Models :Four Ways to Integrate PLATO Into the Curriculum” Technical Paper #6. Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc. January, 2000.

“A guide for implementing technology: or, now that we’ve got them, what do we do with them?” Technical Paper #5. Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc., January, 2000.

"Instructional Systems Design" with Robert Tennyson. in Tobias, S. and Fletcher,D. (eds.), Training & Retraining: A Handbook for Business, Industry, Government and the Military. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. A project of Division 15, The Division of Educational Psychology of the American Psychological Association.

“Science and Research Applications in Operational Environments.” Performance Improvement, 38, 4, April 2000, pp. 44–47.

“A New Technology for Teaching Math Problem Solving.” Presented to International Conference on Mathematics/Science Education and Technology, 1999. Proceedings Vol. 1999, Issue 1, pp. 424–424. With Bob Mulcahy and Ellen Cree.

“But Does It Work?” Six Ways to Evaluate Technology” Presented to World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, 1999. Proceedings Vol 1999, Issue 1, pp. 822–827.

Performance Technology, 2nd Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999, pp. 895–915. With Leslie Moller, Thomas M. Schwen, Howard Kalman, and Debra Haney.

“Commentary: Choosing a Strategy for Return-on-Investment Justification.” Performance Improvement, 37, 8, October, 1998, pp. 6–8.

“Introduction to the Special Issue on Training,” edited by W.R. Foshay. Educational Technology Research and Development Journal, 46,4, Winter, 1998.

“Principles for Teaching Problem Solving” Technical Paper #4. Edina, MN: TRO Learning, Inc. 1998. With Jaimie Kirkley.

“What We Know (and What We Don’t Know) About Training for Problem Solving: An Update.” Performance Improvement, 36, 3, pp. 40–45.

“PLATO Instructional Philosophy and Strategic Direction” Technical Paper #3. Edina, MN: TRO Learning, Inc. 1997.

"The Problem with ISD Models", presented to National Society for Performance & Instruction, March 29, 1995, Atlanta, GA.

"Effectiveness of Computer-Based Training: An Annotated Bibliography of Reviews, 1980–1993", TRO Technical Paper #1. Edina, MN: TRO Learning, Inc. January, 1994.

“Guidelines for Evaluating PLATO Programs,” TRO Technical Paper #2. Edina, MN: TRO Learning, Inc. October, 1992.

“Research in Human Performance Technology.” Chapter 42 in Stolovich, H. and Keeps. E. (eds.), Handbook of Human Performance Technology, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992.

“Advancing the Field Through Research.” Chapter 42 in Stolovich, H. and Keeps. E. (eds.), Handbook of Human Performance Technology, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992, pp. 701–714. With Leslie Moller.

"Guidelines for Evaluating PLATO Programs", TRO Technical Paper #2, Edina, MN: TRO Learning, October, 1992.

"Sharpen Up Your Schemata", Data Training, 10, 6, May, 1991, pp. 18–25.

"Information Technology as a Performance Technology", Performance and Instruction Quarterly, 2, 3, 1989, pp. 115–125.

"I Don't Know Is on Third", Performance and Instruction, 27, 9, October, 1988, pp. 8–9.

"Educational Technology in Schools and in Business: A Personal Experience", Educational Horizon, 66 4, Summer, 1988.

"Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Proposal For a Feasible Architecture" (with Jack Welsh), presented to AERA, April, 1988.

"What We Know (And What We Don't Know) About Training of Cognitive Strategies For Technical Problem-Solving", presented to AERA, April, 1987 ERIC ED292 813; Journal of Structural Learning, 1988. Also in Anglin, ed., Educational Technology, Past Present and Future , 2nd ed. Englewood, CO., Libraries Unlimited, 1995.

"Heuristic Approach to Instructional Design", presented to the National Society for Performance and Instruction, March, 1987.

"CBI: The More Things Change...", Performance and Instruction, June/July 1986, 25, 5, 29–30.

"Commentary: Choosing the Best Alternative Technique for Task Analysis." An Introduction to Performance Technology, Volume 1. Washington, DC: NSPI, 1986, pp. 95–105.

"The Corporate Training Departments as a Clinic for the Study of Instructional Design", JID, 9, 3, 1986, pp. 17–21.

"Problems in Developing a Technology of Instruction for Problem-Solving” presented to AECT, Anaheim, January, 1985.

"Planning and Evaluating Curricula for the Humane Practice of Medicine" JID, 8, 1, 1985, pp. 3–6.

"Quality Control for Training: QC Reviews and Pilot Tests" Data Training, December, 1984, p. 32ff.

"QA and QC: A Training Vendor's View of the Formative/Summative Evaluation Distinction", Performance and Instruction, 23, 10, December 1984, pp. 15–17.

"Training Development Skills: A Joint Task Force Report" Data Training, November 1984, p. 44ff.

"Implementation or Performance: Measuring Training Quality" Data Training, October 1984, p. 24ff.

"High, Middle, and Low Adopters. The PC and Organizational Change." Data Training, July 1984, p. 18ff.

"Measurement Issues in Professional Certification" with Sharon Schrock. Performance and Instruction, 23, 1, February 1984, pp. 23–26.

"Problems in Designing Instructional Strategies for High-Level Problem Solving", presented to AECT, January, 1984.

"Strengthening the Relationship of Training and Performance: The Role of Quality Assurance", presented to the Data Processing Management Association, January, 1984.

"Effects of Business on the Processes of Instructional Design and Production", Presented to AECT, 21 January, 1983.

"Alternative Methods of Task Analysis: Competitors or Replacements?" Journal of Instructional Development, 6, 4, 1984, pp. 2–8.

"Towards a Practical Model of Cognitive/Information Processing Task Analysis and Schema Acquisition for Complex Problem-Solving Situations" with Rolf Braune. Instructional Science, 12, 1983, pp. 121–145.

"The Relationship of Curriculum Development and Instructional Development" with A. W. Foshay, Educational Leadership, Summer, 1981.

"Toward the Multivariate Modeling of Individual Differences in Academic Achievement" with Earl R. Misanchuk. Journal of Educational Research, Spring, 1981.

Review of Medical problem-Solving, An Analysis of Clinical Reasoning by A.S. Elstein, L. S. Schulman, and S. A. Sprafka. Educational Communications and Technology Journal, 28, 1, 1980, pp. 73–74.

"Instructional Development: The Social Implications of a Technical Intervention." with Thomas M. Schwen and others. In R. K. Bass (ed.) Instructional Development: The State of the Art, II. Earlier version in Improving Human Performance Quarterly, 8, 1, 1980, pp. 73–74.

"A Systematic Approach to Designing and ICM Course." Exhibit presented to 1978 Annual Meeting Association of American Medical Colleges (with Robert L. Pace and Marcia R. Smith).

"An Alternative for Task Analysis in an Affective Domain." Journal of Instructional Development, I, 2, Spring, 1978, pp. 22–24.

"A Multivariate Analysis of Academic Advising: Case Study of Research in an Instructional Development Setting." Presentation to the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communication and Technology, 1977 (with Thomas M. Schwen). Also available as ERIC document ED155 194.

"Some Comments on the Foshay Grid for a Humane Curriculum" (1974), available as ERIC document ED072–78.

"Task Analysis for Individualized Instruction with CAI: An Application." Indiana University Computing Network Conference Proceedings, 1977.

Rob Foshay, PhD, CPT
Did You Know?
Most of the time, we focus on teaching people well… what we should not be teaching them at all.